The report was presented by Director Charles Powell and researchers Manuel Gracia, Iliana Olivié and Ainhoa Marín. Photo: Elcano Royal Institute (Real Instituto Elcano)

Spain climbs to 11th in Elcano Global Presence Index

Our country has gone up in the annual ranking prepared by Elcano Royal Institute, considering international relations and foreign presence for 110 countries worldwide.

In terms of global presence, Spain stands 11th at the global level, according to the Elcano Global Presence Report 2018, published by Elcano Royal Institute. The report was presented today by Director Charles Powell and researchers Manuel Gracia, Iliana Olivié and Ainhoa Marín.

The Global Presence Report analyses the international relations and presence abroad of 110 countries in all five continents, measuring their influence along three dimensions: economic (energy exports, primary commodities, investment abroad), military (troops and equipment) and ‘soft’ (tourism, culture and sports, science and technology, education, and cooperation for development).

In the 2017 Report, Spain stood 12th. With a total score of 233.7, our country has moved one position up in the Global Presence Index.

USA, top of the list

Breaking the index down by dimensions, Spain stands 12th in terms of economic presence and 17th for military presence. Our country’s highest position is to be found in the soft dimension, where it stands 9th. This means our global presence abroad relies on such sectors as tourism, culture or science.

USA stands top of the list, with a score three times as high as that of the second-standing country, China (2494.1 vs 840.7). The UK, Germany, France, Japan, Russia, Canada, the Netherlands and Italy are the other countries that make the top ten.

The aggregate value of the 110 countries in the series has been stagnant since 2012. Moreover, 88.4% of globalisation occurs within and/or between North America, Europe, and Asia and the Pacific. This figure has dropped from 90.9% in 1990, consistent with the studies that indicate a strong but weakening regionalisation in global flows.

Africa, under scrutiny

The Elcano Global Presence Report 2018 has added two new regions, Central America and Sub-Saharan Africa, and ten new countries: Cameroon, Paraguay, El Salvador, Uganda, Trinidad and Tobago, Honduras, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Senegal.

The report analyses the evolution of the African continent. Accordingly, Steven Gruzd – analyst at the South African Institute of International Affairs, was a special guest at the presentation.

As compared to other regions, Africa has a low level of external projection. With a global presence of 408 points, it ranks sixth out of six, coming after Europe, North America, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Middle East.

Four countries – South Africa, Egypt, Ethiopia and Nigeria – account for 53% of the region’s aggregate global presence. When adding Uganda and Kenya, the share increases to almost 67% of the continent’s global presence.